This policy brief discusses how to organize and advance technological innovation – and key aspects of innovation policies – to contribute to climate-compatible development for the ‘bottom of the pyramid,’ drawing on lessons and experiences from the literature as well as two specific application areas, household energy and rural electricity. Deployment of suitable technologies at large scale requires that close attention be paid to technology development/adaptation to ensure that the resulting technologies and products seen by users as offering useful services and at a price point that they (or the agencies supporting the deployment of these technologies) can afford. Innovative models, such as innovation prizes or advanced market commitments, may complement traditional ‘R&D’ push approaches to the development of such technology.