NET-RAPIDO: Negative Emission Technologies: Readiness Assessment, Policy Instrument Design, Options for Governance and Dialogue



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The project will consider the potential contributions of negative emission technologies (NETs) to limiting the global temperature increase to well below 2°C or 1.5°C. It will address the tension between ambitious temperature targets and possible reliance on untested, yet potentially necessary, technologies in international climate policy by providing detailed quantitative and qualitative insights on readiness and options for developing coherent international governance arrangements, ensuring environmental integrity, and sustainable development.

It will break new ground in addressing questions of economic feasibility and necessary levels of support, and will develop possible practical approaches to foster private sector investments. This research will be accompanied by a continuous stakeholder and public engagement process. This will recognise the novelty of these technologies, including worrying aspects of some of the options, while carefully identifying what are the most crucial areas of concern in this field. The process will involve researchers, NGOs, policymakers, and industry, leading to a creative learning process about the real-world implications of large-scale NETs deployment.


The project’s overarching objective is to create a clear understanding of opportunities, challenges and risks of negative emission reduction efforts based on an informed analysis and proper discussion amongst relevant stakeholders. More specifically the project aims to:

• Assess major prospective negative emission technologies (NETs) through a multi-disciplinary approach involving economics, engineering and political science with regards to their technical maturity, GHG reduction costs and potential barriers for implementation. This assessment will be done over two time scales (towards 2030 and 2050), and case studies will be undertaken, focusing on key NETs technologies.

• Define elements of a potential governance framework required in order to manage and mobilise the deployment of NETs, ensuring environmental integrity and avoiding any negative side effects. The project will build on the Paris Agreement (PA) and will make suggestions for a NETs governance framework.

• Evaluate how to engage and stimulate action for NETs from the private sector both on the international and national level. A focus will be on modalities and procedures for designing market mechanisms (Art. 6) and design of climate finance approaches to mobilise private sector investment into NETs, differentiating into NET providers and NET users.

• Create a common language and increase key stakeholders’ understanding of the implications of large-scale deployment of NETs. This process will actively facilitate mutual learning processes, especially in regard to the impact on energy systems and other dimensions of sustainable development. The project will also facilitate understanding of governance needs at the international level under the PA and discussion of possible guidelines for the (non -) application of NETs, that draws on the best available scientific knowledge and stakeholder views.


The project is being led by a consortium of Märladalen University, Sweden (Sweden, project lead), Perspectives Climate Research (Germany) and Climate Strategies.

The project is funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.